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How to Use Quotation Marks Summary: A rundown of the general rules of when and where to use quotation marks. Using Quotation Marks The primary function of quotation marks is to set off and represent exact language either spoken or written that has come from somebody else.
The quotation mark is also used to designate speech acts in fiction and sometimes poetry. Since you will most often use them when working with outside sources, successful use of quotation marks is a practical defense against accidental plagiarism and an excellent practice in academic honesty.
The following rules of quotation mark use are the standard in the United States, although it may be of interest that usage rules for this punctuation do vary in other countries. The following covers the basic use of quotation marks.
For details and exceptions consult the separate sections of this guide. Direct Quotations Direct quotations involve incorporating another person's exact words into your own writing. Quotation marks always come in pairs. Do not open a quotation and fail to close it at the end of the quoted material.
Capitalize the first letter of a direct quote when the quoted material is a complete sentence. Johnson, who was working in his field that morning, said, "The alien spaceship appeared right before my own two eyes.
Johnson has seen odd happenings on the farm, he stated that the spaceship "certainly takes the cake" when it comes to unexplainable activity.
If a direct quotation is interrupted mid-sentence, do not capitalize the second part of the quotation. Johnson said, "but I sure wish I had. It is important to realize also that when you are using MLA or some other form of documentation, this punctuation rule may change. When quoting text with a spelling or grammar error, you should transcribe the error exactly in your own text.
However, also insert the term sic in italics directly after the mistake, and enclose it in brackets. Sic is from the Latin, and translates to "thus," "so," or "just as that.
Johnson says of the experience, "It's made me reconsider the existence of extraterestials [sic]. Too many quotations in a research paper will get you accused of not producing original thought or material they may also bore a reader who wants to know primarily what YOU have to say on the subject.
Indirect Quotations Indirect quotations are not exact wordings but rather rephrasings or summaries of another person's words. In this case, it is not necessary to use quotation marks.
However, indirect quotations still require proper citations, and you will be committing plagiarism if you fail to do so. Johnson, a local farmer, reported last night that he saw an alien spaceship on his own property. Many writers struggle with when to use direct quotations versus indirect quotations.
Use the following tips to guide you in your choice. Use direct quotations when the source material uses language that is particularly striking or notable.
Do not rob such language of its power by altering it. Martin Luther King Jr. The above should never stand in for:Do not use quotation marks around terms of art. A term of art is a phrase that has become so well accepted and pervasive in a particular field that it is no longer considered proprietary to its original author.
Quotation Incorporation Chief Justice Marshall, and perhaps a few others, they are considered the legends of American legal history. In persuasive writing, it never hurts to quote a legend. 4. Do not use quotation marks around terms of art.
A term of art is a phrase that has become so well accepted and pervasive in a particular field that. simple things, such as when to use single and double quotation marks. Fortunately, a well-crafted lesson on quoting can fill in lots of these gaps and help students at the top, middle, and bottom of the class Teaching Legal Research and Writing | Vol.
14 | No. 1 | Fall This is not to say that courts and law review articles should never. Planning and Writing Research Papers; Quoting and Paraphrasing; Writing Annotated Bibliographies; Using literary quotations.
Use the guidelines below to learn how to use literary quotations. Commas and periods go inside the closing quotation marks; the other punctuation marks go outside. How to Use Quotation Marks. Quotation marks are usually employed or used when writing a wide range of works including articles, journals, books, compositions, manuscripts, play scripts among others.
In this lesson, you will learn how and when to use quotation marks. There are three main situations this lesson will cover: when writing exact words people have said, writing to highlight specific.