Moscow and only properly made Emperor by Papal coronation, with all its expressed and implied conditions, not surprisingly was soon shown to be wielding a fatally compromised and fading form of power. In the treatment here, "Francia" will mean all of Europe that in the Mediaeval period was subject to the Roman Catholic Church, with its Latin liturgy, headed by the Popethe Bishop of Rome.
But at the end of the 18th century a self-educated slave with no military training drove Napoleon out of Haiti and led his country to independence. Slave revolts from this time normally ended in executions and failure — this story is the exception.
It began in in the French colony of Saint Dominique later Haiti. Though born a slave in Saint Dominique, Toussaint learned of Africa from his father, who had been born a free man there.
He learned that he was more than a slave, that he was a man with brains and dignity. He was fortunate in having a liberal master who had him trained as a house servant and allowed him to learn to read and write.
Toussaint took full advantage of this, reading every book he could get his hands on. He particularly admired the writings of the French Enlightenment philosophers, who spoke of individual rights and equality. In the French Revolution rocked France.
The sugar plantations of Saint Dominique, though far away, would never be the same. Spurred on by such Enlightenment thinkers as Jean-Jacques Rousseauthe early moderate revolutionaries The rise of napoleon seriously the question of slavery.
Those moderate revolutionaries were not willing to end slavery but they did apply the "Rights of Man" to all Frenchmen, including free blacks and mulattoes those of mixed race. Plantation owners in the colonies were furious and fought the measure.
Finally the revolutionaries gave in and retracted the measure in The news of this betrayal triggered mass slave revolts in Saint Dominique, and Toussaint became the leader of the slave rebellion. He became known as Toussaint L'Ouverture the one who finds an opening and brilliantly led his rag-tag slave army.
He successfully fought the French who helped by succumbing to yellow fever in large numbers as well as invading Spanish and British. Maximilian Robespierre Bythe revolution in France was in the hands of the Jacobinsthe most radical of the revolutionary groups. There was jubilation among the blacks in Haiti, and Toussaint agreed to help the French army eject the British and Spanish.
Toussaint proved to be a brilliant general, winning 7 battles in 7 days. He became a defacto governor of the colony. In France the Jacobins lost power. People finally tired of blood flowing in the streets and sent Maximilian Robespierre, the leader of the Jacobins, to the guillotine, ending the Reign of Terror.
A reaction set in.
The French people wanted to get back to business. More moderate leaders came and went, eventually replaced by Napoleon, who ruled France with dictatorial powers.
He responded to the pleas of the plantation owners by reinstating slavery in the French colonies, once again plunging Haiti into war. Napoleon Bonaparte By Napoleon was ready to get Haiti off his back: Napoleon agreed to recognize Haitian independence and Toussaint agreed to retire from public life.
A few months later, the French invited Toussaint to come to a negotiating meeting will full safe conduct.
When he arrived, the French at Napoleon's orders betrayed the safe conduct and arrested him, putting him on a ship headed for France. Napoleon ordered that Toussaint be placed in a prison dungeon in the mountains, and murdered by means of cold, starvation, and neglect.
Toussaint died in prison, but others carried on the fight for freedom. Six months later, Napoleon decided to give up his possessions in the New World. He was busy in Europe and these far-away possessions were more trouble than they were worth.
Years later, in exile at St. Helena, when asked about his dishonorable treatment of Toussaint, Napoleon merely remarked, "What could the death of one wretched Negro mean to me?SUCCESSORS OF ROME: FRANCIA, Present.
Kings and Emperors of the Franks, France, Burgundy, Italy, and Germany. Introduction. After the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, and the occupation of much of Gaul by the Franks, Roman power never returned far enough to come into conflict with the Frankish kingdom (except, to an extent, in the South of Italy).
Napoleon's rise to power. Napoleon's career largely resulted from the military innovations he inherited from the French Revolution, such as mass conscription which made possible the use of block tactics in order to attack in column and eliminated the need for supply lines, thus making French armies much more mobile.
Napoleon was born the same year the Republic of Genoa, a former commune of Italy, transferred Corsica to France. The state sold sovereign rights a year before his birth in , and the island was conquered by France during the year of his birth and formally incorporated as a province in , after years under nominal Genoese rule and 14 years of independence.
In a tense, crowded thirty-three days in the autumn of , Napoleon Bonaparte organized a coup and made himself dictator of France. Yet his position was precarious. Fulfillment by Amazon (FBA) is a service we offer sellers that lets them store their products in Amazon's fulfillment centers, and we directly pack, ship, and provide customer service for these products.
Napoleon's rise to power. Napoleon's career largely resulted from the military innovations he inherited from the French Revolution, such as mass conscription which made possible the use of block tactics in order to attack in column and eliminated the need for supply .