Application[ edit ] Textbooks and scientific publications related to computer science and numerical computation often use pseudocode in description of algorithms, so that all programmers can understand them, even if they do not all know the same programming languages.
Christine Laine, Margaret A. Winker This WAME document aims to provide guidance to help editors, researchers, funders, academic institutions and other stakeholders distinguish predatory journals from legitimate journals. Although predatory journals may claim to conduct peer review and mimic the structure of legitimate journals, they publish all or most submitted material without external peer review and do not follow standard policies advocated by organizations such as the World Association of Medical Editors WAMEthe Pseudo code on Publication Ethics COPEthe International Committee of Medical Journal Editors ICMJEand the Council of Science Editors CSE regarding issues such as archiving of journal content, management of potential conflicts of interest, handling of errata, and transparency of journal processes and policies including fees.
A common practice among predatory publishers is sending frequent e-mails to large numbers of individuals soliciting manuscript submission and promising rapid publication for author fees that may be lower than those of legitimate author-pays journals.
In the most egregious cases, they collect publication fees but the promised published articles never appear on the journal website.
Regardless of the name applied to them, such journals do not provide the peer review that is the hallmark of traditional scholarly publishing. As such, they fall short of being the type of publication that serves as evidence of academic performance that is necessary to gain future research funding and academic advancement.
Identifying such journals is important for authors, researchers, peer reviewers, and editors, because scientific work that is not properly vetted should not contribute to the scientific record.
Predatory journals are the most prevalent type of pseudo-journals and have increased quickly. A longitudinal study of article volumes and publishing market characteristics estimated active predatory journals, with total articles increasing from 53, in toin an estimated three-quarters of authors were from Asia and Africa 8.
Therefore, this statement focuses on predatory journals.
Most academicians and their affiliated institutions and the entities that fund their work want their work to be published in legitimate journals. Unfortunately, the tremendous proliferation of journals—both legitimate and predatory—makes it increasingly difficult to identify predatory journals.
From to JanuaryJeffrey Beall, a librarian at Auraria Library and associate professor at the University of Colorado Denver, compiled annual lists of potential, possible, or probably predatory scholarly open access journals 9.
Inhe added two additional lists—misleading metrics and hijacked journals. The misleading metrics list included companies that produce counterfeit impact factors or similar journal measures that predatory publishers use to deceive scholars into thinking that the journals are legitimate.
However, Beall did not list the specific criteria he used to categorize a given journal as predatory 13 and he mistakenly black-listed some legitimate journals and publishers, particularly those from low and middle income countries LMICs In addition, some criticized Beall for being biased against open access publishing models, and for conflating access rules with business models Other Beall criteria, while identifying potentially undesirable journal features, are not reliable indicators of predatory publication practices e.
The Directory aims to be comprehensive and cover all open access academic journals that use an appropriate quality control system…and is not limited to particular languages or subject areas. The DOAJ grants some journals the DOAJ seal, a mark of certification for open access journals for achievement of a high level of openness, adhering to best practices, and having high publishing standards Table 2.
However, the DOAJ is not a comprehensive list of all legitimate open access journals and a journal that is not listed should not be assumed to be illegitimate or predatory. These criteria Table 3 are useful for authors considering where to submit their work, but as with the other initiatives are not a failsafe to identify all legitimate scholarly journals.
The criterion of knowledge of individuals involved in the journal make this approach less useful for those who are evaluating journals from a different part of the world. WAME developed the framework illustrated in Figure 1 for such investigation.
This framework begins with assessing whether the journal has any of the characteristics Beall viewed as potentially problematic Table 1its presence in the DOAJ, and presence of Think.The caniuse browser scores are tallies of all features tracked on caniuse (excluding those marked as "unofficial").
The fully opaque part represents supported features, the . Understand why pseudocode is useful.
Pseudocode is used to show how a computing algorithm should work. Coders often use pseudocode as an intermediate step in programming in between the initial planning stage and the stage of writing actual executable code.
Pseudocode is an artificial and informal language that helps programmers develop algorithms. Pseudocode is a "text-based" detail (algorithmic) design tool. The rules of Pseudocode . Before designing an algorithm it is important to first understand what the problem is. Algorithms can be designed using pseudocode or a flowchart, and the standard notations of each should be known.
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