Ancient Anatolia Prehistoric cultures of Anatolia Anatolia may be defined in geographic terms as the area bounded to the north by the Black Seato the east and south by the Southeastern Taurus Mountains and the Mediterranean Seaand to the west by the Aegean Sea and Sea of Marmara ; culturally the area also includes the islands of the eastern Aegean Sea. In most prehistoric periods the regions to the south and west of Anatolia were under the influence of, respectively, Syria and the Balkans. Much visible evidence of the earliest cultures of Anatolia may have been lost owing to the large rise in sea levels that followed the end of the last Ice Age about 10, years ago and to deposition of deep alluvium in many coastal and inland valleys. Rock engravings of animals on the walls of caves near Antalyaon the Mediterranean coast, suggest a relationship with the Upper Paleolithic art of western Europe.
Banisteriopsis… Meanings The modern English word witchcraft has three principal connotations: The difficulty is even greater with the relevant words in African, Asian, and other languages.
The problem of defining witchcraft is made more difficult because the concepts underlying these words also change according to time and place, sometimes radically. Moreover, different cultures do not share a coherent pattern of witchcraft beliefs, which often blend other concepts such as magic, sorcery, religionfolkloretheology, technology, and diabolism.
The terms West and Western in this article refer to European societies themselves and to post-Columbian societies influenced by European concepts. One thing is certain: False ideas about witchcraft and the witch hunts persist today.
Witches were not a persecuted minority, because witches did not exist: The witch hunts did not prosecute, let alone execute, millions; they were not a conspiracy by males, priests, judges, doctors, or inquisitors against members of an old religion or any other real group.
In many ways, like their counterparts worldwide, early Western sorcerers and witches worked secretly for private ends, as contrasted with the public practice of religion. Witches or sorcerers were usually feared as well as respected, and they used a variety of means to attempt to achieve their goals, including incantations formulas or chants invoking evil spiritsdivination and oracles to predict the futureamulets and charms to ward off hostile spirits and harmful eventspotions or salves, and dolls or other figures to represent their enemies.
Witches sought to gain or preserve health, to acquire or retain property, to protect against natural disasters or evil spirits, to help friends, and to seek revenge. Sometimes this magic was believed to work through simple causation as a form of technology.
Often the magic was instead an effort to construct symbolic reality. Sorcery was sometimes believed to rely on the power of gods or other spirits, leading to the belief that witches used demons in their work.
Jeffrey Burton Russell Witchcraft in Africa and the world The same dichotomy between sorcery and witchcraft exists sometimes more ambiguously in the beliefs of many peoples throughout the world. Again, witches are typically seen as particularly active after dusk, when law-abiding mortals are asleep.
According to traditional Navajo belief, when a witch travels at night, he wears the skin of a dead animal in order to effect a transformation into that animal. In some African cultures witches are believed to assemble in cannibal covensoften at graveyards or around a fire, to feast on the blood that they, like vampires, extract from their victims.
Like those in Western society suspected of child abuse and SatanismAfrican witches in the popular imagination are believed to practice incest and other perversions. It can be activated merely by wishing someone ill and is thus a kind of unspoken, or implicitcurse.
At the same time, the Zande believe that evil deeds can be wrought even more effectively by the manipulation of spells and potions and the use of powerful magic.
It is thus easy for those accused of witchcraft, but who are not conscious of wishing anyone ill, to assume that they unknowingly did what is attributed to them.
This, along with the effects of suggestion and torturein a world where people take the reality of witchcraft for granted, goes far to explain the striking confessions of guilt that are so widely reported in Africa and elsewhere and that are otherwise hard to comprehend.
It is worth noting, however, that if witches believe they are unconscious agents, this is generally not the view of those who feel victimized by them.
Whatever the basis of their power and the means by which it is exercised, witches and sorcerers are regularly credited with causing all manner of disease and disaster. Sickness, and even death, as well as a host of lesser misfortunes, are routinely laid at their door.
In many parts of Africa and Asiaepidemics and natural disasters have been interpreted as acts of witchcraft. For some unhappy candidates in many less developed countries, the same malign influence is cited to explain at least in part failure in examinations, elections, or difficulties in finding employment.
However, like their ancient and early modern European counterparts, modern Africans and Asians who believe firmly in the reality of witchcraft do not lack the power of rational reasoning.
To suppose that these are incompatible alternatives is a common mistake. In reality pragmatic and mystical explanations of events usually exist in parallel or combination but operate in different contexts and at different levels.
For example, anthropological research has demonstrated that African farmers who believe in witches do not expect witchcraft to account for obvious technical failures. If a boat sinks because it has a hole in its bottom or a car breaks down because its battery is dead, witchcraft is not responsible.
Witchcraft enters the picture when rational knowledge fails. It explains the diseases whose causes are unknown, the mystery of death, and, more generally, strange and inexplicable misfortunes.Capital Ideas: The Improbable Origins of Modern Wall Street - Ebook written by Peter L.
Bernstein. Read this book using Google Play Books app on your PC, android, iOS devices. Download for offline reading, highlight, bookmark or take notes while you read Capital Ideas: The /5(5).
The overarching theme of Capital Ideas is that securities markets are efficient.
Efficient financial markets seemingly present a conundrum for securities analysts and investors. Efficient financial markets seemingly present a conundrum for securities analysts and investors. Capital Ideas: The Improbable Origins of Modern Wall Street / Edition 1 Capital Ideas traces the origins of modern Wall Street, from the pioneering work of early scholars and the development of new theories in risk, valuation, and investment returns, to the actual implementation of these theories in the real world of investment management.5/5(1).
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This was a rewarding activity, say, 40 years ago, when our textbook "Graham and Dodd" was first published; but the situation has changed a great deal since then.
THE MAKING OF THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION. Table of Contents I. Discontent with the Articles of Confederation II. The Constitutional Convention.