By ITS Education Asia [Articles home] It is a fair assumption that the majority of physics students, both past and present, would agree that physics is one of the more difficult subjects studied in senior school.
Internet Sources The greatest and most influential of Plato 's students was Aristotlewho established his own school at Athens. Although his writing career probably began with the production of quasi-Platonic dialogues, none of them have survived.
Instead, our knowledge of Aristotle's doctrines must be derived from highly-condensed, elliptical works that may have been lecture notes from his teaching at the Lyceum. Although not intended for publication, these texts reveal a brilliant mind at work on many diverse topics. Philosophically, the works of Aristotle reflect his gradual departure from the teachings of Plato and his adoption of a new approach.
Unlike Plato, who delighted in abstract thought about a supra-sensible realm of forms, Aristotle was intensely concrete and practical, relying heavily upon sensory observation as a starting-point for philosophical reflection. Interested in every area of human knowledge about the world, Aristotle aimed to unify all of them in a coherent system of thought by developing a common methodology that would serve equally well as the procedure for learning about any discipline.
For Aristotle, then, logic is the instrument the "organon" by means of which we come to know anything. He proposed as formal rules for correct reasoning the basic principles of the categorical logic that was universally accepted by Western philosophers until the nineteenth century.
This system of thought regards assertions of the subject-predicate form as the primary expressions of truth, in which features or properties are shown to inhere in individual substances.
In every discipline of human knowledge,then, we seek to establish the things of some sort have features of a certain kind. Aristotle further supposed that this logical scheme accurately represents the true nature of reality.
Thought, language, and reality are all isomorphic, so careful consideration of what we say can help us to understand the way things really are. Beginning with simple descriptions of particular things, we can eventually assemble our information in order to achieve a comprehensive view of the world.
Applying the Categories The initial book in Aristotle 's collected logical works is the Categoriesan analysis of predication generally. It begins with a distinction among three ways in which the meaning of different uses of a predicate may be related to each other: Homonymous uses of a predicate have entirely different explanations, as in "With all that money, she's really loaded," and "After all she had to drink, she's really loaded.
So long as we are clear about the sort of use we are making in each instance, Aristotle proposed that we develop descriptions of individual things that attribute to each predicates or categories of ten different sorts.
Substance is the most crucial among these ten, since it describes the thing in terms of what it most truly is. For Aristotle, primary substance is just the individual thing itself, which cannot be predicated of anything else.
But secondary substances are predicable, since they include the species and genera to which the individual thing belongs. Thus, the attribution of substance in this secondary sense establishes the essence of each particular thing. Categories 4 Used in combination, the ten kinds of predicate can provide a comprehensive account of what any individual thing is.
She is in my apartment at 7: Aristotle supposed that anything that is true of any individual substance could, in principle, be said about it in one of these ten ways. The Nature of Truth Another of Aristotle 's logical works, On Interpretationconsiders the use of predicates in combination with subjects to form propositions or assertions, each of which is either true or false.
We usually determine the truth of a proposition by reference to our experience of the reality it conveys, but Aristotle recognized that special difficulties arise in certain circumstances. Although we grant and can often even discover the truth or falsity of propositions about past and present events, propositions about the future seem problematic.
If a proposition about tomorrow is true or false today, then the future event it describes will happen or not happen necessarily; but if such a proposition is neither true nor false, then there is no future at all.
Aristotle's solution was to maintain that the disjunction is necessarily true today even though neither of its disjuncts is. Thus, it is necessary that either tomorrow's event will occur or it will not, but it is neither necessary that it will occur nor necessary that it will not occur.Time and Impermanence in Middle Way Buddhism and Modern Physics.
Talk at the Physics and Tibetan Buddhism Conference University of California, Santa Barbara January , Magnet: Magnet, any material capable of attracting iron and producing a magnetic field outside itself. By the end of the 19th century all the known elements and many compounds had been tested for magnetism, and all were found to have some magnetic property.
. Aug 09, · How to Understand Classical Physics. Classical physics is the study of motion, projectiles, pulleys, and the planets. Newton’s first law tells us that any object in motion will continue to move in the same direction with the same speed unless another force acts on it to change its motion.
It’s important to note that an 87%(66). Explore the basics of the fundamental laws of nature, important theories, and history of physics. The Basics of Physics in Scientific Study. Search the site GO.
Science. Physics Basics Core Theories & Concepts To begin the study of physics, you must first understand what physics actually Astronomy Teaches Us about the Universe. What You.
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We. Q & A: Why are Newton's Laws of Motion Important? Learn more physics! Related Questions. Still Curious? These laws tell us exactly how things move or sit still, like why you don't float out of bed or fall through the floor of your house.
If you decide to study physics in college, you'll definitely learn how to apply these laws to.